Outline of geography

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Geography is the study of the Earth and its features, inhabitants, and the phenomena.[1] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences.[2] Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand, or synthesize an understanding of, the world and all of its human and natural complexities – not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches – human geography and physical geography.[3]


  1. "Geography". The American Heritage Dictionary/ of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/geography. Retrieved October 9 2006. 
  2. Pattison, W.D. (1990). "The Four Traditions of Geography" (PDF). Journal of Geography 89 (5): pp. 202–6. doi:10.1080/00221349008979196. ISSN 0022-1341. http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~kclarke/G200B/four_20traditions_20of_20geography.pdf.  Reprint of a 1964 article.
  3. web.clas.ufl.edu/users/morgans/lecture_2.prn.pdf.

See also

  • Outline of astronomy - while geography studies and maps the World, astronomy is the study of the rest of the universe, and maps the stars and galaxies.
  • Earth - there's a lot more to a planet than its geography. Some fields closely related to geography are:
    • Geology - while geography studies the surface of the Earth and the location of things on it, geology is the study of the Earth itself, that is, its solid matter: the ground, what it is made of, and what is beneath it.
    • Oceanography - while geography names and maps bodies of water, oceonography studies the large ones, the water they contain, and the life they contain.
  • Universe - the place where the World exists.

Teaching geography

Multimedia geography resources

Geographical associations and pressure groups