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Topography (from the Greek topo- "place" and graphia, "writing") is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features, especially their depiction in maps. The topography of an area can also mean the surface shape and features themselves. In a broader sense, topography is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also vegetative and human-made features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in America, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe. ... more
System Design Strategies
System Design Strategies is an exclusive resource for the successful design and deployment for geographic information systems technology. This documentation is provided to share system architecture design methodology and the fundamental principles that contribute to system performance and scalability.
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What is standard is related to a number of other international standards and form a model for exchange of Geographic Information?