GIS Software Technology

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System Design Strategies (select here for table of contents)
1. System Design Process 2. GIS Software Technology 3. Software Performance 4. Server Software Performance
5. GIS Data Administration 6. Network Communications 7. Platform Performance 8. Information Security
9. GIS Product Architecture 10. Performance Management 11. City of Rome 12. System Implementation
A1. Capacity Planning Tool B1. Windows Memory Management Preface (Executive Summary) SDSwiki What's New



Fall 2018 GIS Software Technology 43rd Edition

Since the early 1970s, Esri has continued to develop GIS software technology supporting functional requirements identified by the GIS user community. Sensitivity to software development trends and enterprise architecture strategies provide guidelines for development investment. Esri software developers leverage the latest computer hardware and software technology to maintain leadership in the GIS marketplace. Resources are aligned to provide the best software and services based on GIS customer needs.

A variety of ArcGIS software technology patterns are available to satisfy enterprise business operational needs. Technology patterns include a broad range of Desktop, Server, and Mobile deployment options. Selecting the right technology is a critical step in the enterprise system design process.

Contents

GIS Software Evolution

Figure 2.1 Evolution highlights of ArcGIS software from 1982 to present.

There is much we can learn from our past, and Figure 2.1 provides a high-level overview of the major GIS technology changes over the past 25 years. Each technology advance was a tradeoff between heavier processing loads and deploying software that was easier to build and maintain. Faster hardware processors and improved network bandwidth provide opportunities for more software innovation. As platform and network capabilities improve, new advances in software move technology forward at an increasingly rapid pace.

Software development history gives us insight into the basic principles that guide us in building the technology of the future.

Technology drives software innovation

Advances in technology continues to expand GIS capabilities.

Tightly scripted software code

The early ARC/INFO software provided developers and professional GIS users with a rich toolkit for geospatial query and analysis and demonstrated the value of GIS technology.

  • ArcView introduced easy-to-use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software that could be used directly by GIS operational users.
  • Map Objects empowered developers with a simple way to integrate GIS in focused business application environments.
  • Terminal servers enabled remote user access to centrally managed GIS desktop applications.
  • ArcIMS web services introduced a framework for publishing GIS information products to web browser clients.
  • ArcStorm and ArcSDE introduced better ways to maintain and share GIS data resources.

Object-relational software

Hardware performance improvements led to more efficient programming techniques deployed in the late 1990s.

  • ArcGIS Desktop software gave users a simple and powerful application interface for many standard GIS operations.
  • ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Engine provided developers with rich processing tools and full GIS functionality for custom application development and deployment.
  • Distributed geodatabase management tools and replication services provided better integration and sharing of geospatial data.

Service-oriented architecture

Web technology introduced more ways to share data and services, introducing a services-oriented component architecture along with interoperability standards that enable open and adaptive applications developed from multi-vendor component architecture.

  • Google and Microsoft introduced pre-processed (cached) online global basemap imagery, providing free access to geographic information products from home and mobile devices.
  • Online data and services become an important extension of the GIS user experience.
  • Rich internet client technology improves display performance and server capacity.

Cloud computing platform architecture

Hardware virtualization, data center automation, and self-service cloud computing provide simpler ways to administer and support GIS applications and services.

  • ArcGIS online provides a cloud-based self-service framework for sharing intelligent maps and building an online community basemap.
  • Portal for ArcGIS provides on-premise support for collaboration and sharing.
  • Free web mapping tools encourage collaboration and sharing within groups and communities throughout the web.
  • Imagery is fully integrated into ArcGIS, including a rich set of imagery management and analysis tools.
  • ArcGIS is available for mobile phones, tablets, and a variety of new mobile clients.
  • Commercial off the shelf (COTS) applications reduce service deployment times and expand use access from a variety of client devices.
  • Configurable apps enable business users to design and deploy custom services.
  • Configurable apps introduced easy-to-use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software that enable custom web service publishing by GIS operational users.
  • Real time streaming updates is becoming part of the GIS display.

Distributed operations

ArcGIS Enterprise, Web GIS, and Enterprise solutions provide support for hybrid distributed operations.

  • ArcGIS Enterprise with on-premise Web GIS.
  • ArcGIS Online organization for public collaboration.
  • Infrastructure and a Service (IaaS) cloud services for expanded data center capacity.
  • ArcGIS Industry Solutions for rapid system deployment.
Best Practice: Software technology migration from scripts to objects to services and to the cloud accelerated the rate of technology change, while increasing demands on hardware performance and network connectivity. The change in technology impacted business processes in an evolutionary way opening new opportunities for GIS to support enterprise and community operations, helping customers better understand their world, and empowering business with more informed decisions.


Emerging technology trends

Figure 2.2 GIS architecture patterns have evolved over time with improvements in both connectivity and infrastructure technology.

Figure 2.2 shows a four quadrant chart sharing the relationship between technology and advancing GIS capabilities. GIS is evolving as a platform for understanding our world. Geography helps us visualize our data in a unique way. GIS analysis identifies relationships between objects in space and time for intelligent spatial thinking. GIS analysis requires access to large volumes of data that have location or place information tags: i.e. addresses, place names, or lat/long attributes. The result of geospatial analysis is presented in a language we can all easily understand: Maps.

GIS architecture patterns include (1) traditional GIS departments working with local data on local desktop workstations to (4) ubiquitous collaborative environments with direct access to services and online data sources accessed from multiple devices from any location through the Cloud.

  1. Traditional GIS. Professionals in GIS departments develop and maintain data sources and create geographic information products from their local work environment. GIS users request maps prepared by a GIS analysis for use in their work. Departments throughout the Enterprise establish their own local GIS groups for building and managing operational level geographic content. GIS data is distributed as files (such as shapefiles, file-based geodatabases, personal geodatabases, SQL Express, etc.) and accessed locally.
  2. Centralized GIS. GIS data is developed and maintained in a centralized geodatabase shared by all departments throughout the Enterprise. Enterprise application workflows are established with direct user access to dynamic geographic information products used in their work. GIS data resides in centralized enterprise geodatabases hosted by relational database management systems (RDBMS).
  3. GIS online sharing. ArcGIS Online shares a selection of common Cloud-hosted cached basemaps and imagery that GIS users can access across a wide area network (WAN). Communities contribute original basemap resources to enhance the ArcGIS Online cached data sources. Data packages, model packages, and intelligent maps can be shared through a secure networking portal connecting groups and organizations promoting collaboration within and among geospatial communities. Increasing Internet connectivity is a catalyst for bringing users and organizations together to solve community geospatial problems by sharing better ways to manage our world. GIS data is stored in the online cloud and accessed as either static map services (basemaps cached content) or as GIS files. These files can be shared and downloaded to be viewed or analyzed using local GIS desktop software.
  4. Web GIS Architecture. ArcGIS Online Organization services extended GIS user access to directly create and share geospatial data services to users on any device at any location through the Cloud. Direct access to dynamic geospatial data services, configurable applications for Web and mobile phone clients, and real time geospatial data feeds over the WAN. Dynamic business layers maintained by each organization can overlay (mashup) on shared basemaps delivering rich high performance operational geographic information products. Web services are hosted on a self-service scalable infrastructure that establishes ArcGIS as a platform for geospatial information collaboration and sharing. GIS information products are published as dynamic, REST-based, loosely-coupled data services that can be consumed by all GIS applications: Desktop, Web or Mobile.

ArcGIS Online Organizations enable ubiquitous access and integrates the traditional work of geospatial professionals with a whole new world of GIS applications. It takes what have been relatively scarce commodities—stories and actionable geoinformation—and makes them abundant. Web maps provide the medium for integration and understanding and make this information widely accessible in simple forms. This widespread, easy access to geographic knowledge is what we mean by providing geography as a platform for understanding.

Best Practice: Increased connectivity and integration promote use of dynamic GIS content.


What is ArcGIS?

Figure 2.3 What is ArcGIS today?

Figure 2.3 shares how GIS is getting easier to use, more powerful, and available in more places today than ever before.

ArcGIS shares a global platform for working with maps and geographic information. It is used to…

  • Discover: Sharing and discovering geographic information.
  • Create: Creating and using maps.
  • Manage: Managing geographic information in a database.
  • Visualize: Using maps and geographic information in a range of applications.
  • Analyze: Analyzing geospatial information.
  • Collaborate: Compiling geographic data into real time information products.

You can work with ArcGIS using a range of clients.

  • Web: Rich internet application clients connecting to web-based services.
  • Mobile: Mobile devices connected over wireless broadband connections.
  • Desktop: Workstations connected to data sources throughout the enterprise.

These services can be hosted in a range of settings:

  • Cloud services: Published and shared in the cloud.
  • Enterprise services: Web services for use within an enterprise.
  • Local services: On a local computer (and as files on disk).

ArcGIS provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community, and openly on the web. Each GIS service can be shared within a specific workgroup or organization; within a small, well-defined user community; or publicly on the open web.

Standard ArcGIS deployment patterns:

  • Departmental: Local work area desktops connected to local data servers.
  • Centralized: Centralized geodatabase server accessed by multiple departments located throughout the enterprise.
  • Enterprise: Enterprise operations distributed over local, remote, and cloud architecture.
  • Federated: Distributed GIS operations sharing spatial data sources via web portals or replicated geodatabase services.
  • Service-oriented architecture: Workflow integration through web services and messaging.
  • Cloud computing: Hosted self-service data center operations.

GIS tends to bring business units and organizations together to solve common problems, and as such is established as an important component of enterprise operations management.

Best Practice: Enterprise system design is about selecting the right software deployed on the best platform providing the best return on investment.


ArcGIS Enterprise

Figure 2.4 ArcGIS Enterprise enables content development and management at a business user level. .

Figure 2.4 shows the ArcGIS Enterprise deployment concept, managing information from a community of services and delivering web maps to applications supported on every device.

ArcGIS portal (ArcGIS Online and Portal for ArcGIS) content management enables customer engagement, collaboration, and sharing, which empowers business users to create and share content (information products).

Integrated platform architecture facilitates information development and sharing.

  • ArcGIS Desktop clients create and publish services content.
  • GIS content (web layers) can be published and shared from server, online content, and Internet services.
  • Web maps can be developed by end users for analysis and collaboration.
  • Access and identify management can be managed by the end user community.
  • GIS information products (web maps) can be accessed as a service and shared on any client application.


ArcGIS platform use role summary

Figure 2.5 Standard use cases supported by GIS operations.

Figure 2.5 shows the standard user roles supported by the ArcGIS platform.

GIS business needs can be represented by a variety of use cases represented by the following ArcGIS platform user roles.

ArcGIS Desktop use cases

  • Expert: GIS professionals and data scientists who perform advanced geospatial analysis, visualization, mapping, and data management.
  • Curator: GIS professionals who curate and maintain authoritative maps and geospatial databases.
  • Analyst: People who perform analysis, visualization, and mapping.

Web apps use cases

  • Contributor (Level 2 user): Knowledge workers who create, update, and share maps and related content.
  • Viewer (Level 1 user): Everybody who views and interacts with existing maps.
Best Practice: Standard ArcGIS licensing options are provided for each user role.


ArcGIS Desktop user roles

ArcGIS Desktop user roles include ArcGIS Expert, ArcGIS Curator, and ArcGIS Analyst.

ArcGIS Expert

Figure 2.6 ArcGIS Expert role.

Figure 2.6 shows the ArcGIS Expert user role. The ArcGIS Expert user role includes the following capabilities:

Software capabilities

  • ArcGIS Desktop Advanced
  • Apps for Field and Office
  • Basic App Builders and Solution Templates
  • L2 Read-Write Identify (when paired with ArcGIS Online or Enterprise)

Licensing

  • Perpetual and term licensing options

Optional extensions

  • Advanced Analysis: ArcGIS 3D Analyst, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS Network Analyst, ArcGIS Schematics, ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS Tracking Analyst
  • Data and Workflows: ArcGIS Data Interoperability, ArcGIS Data Reviewer, ArcGIS Publisher, ArcGIS Workflow Manager

ArcGIS Curator

Figure 2.7 ArcGIS Curator role.

Figure 2.7 shows the ArcGIS Curator user role. The ArcGIS Curator user role includes the following capabilities:

Software capabilities

  • ArcGIS Desktop Standard
  • Apps for Field and Office
  • Basic App Builders and Solution Templates
  • L2 Read-Write Identify (when paired with ArcGIS Online or Enterprise)

Licensing

  • Perpetual and term licensing options

Optional extensions

  • Advanced Analysis: ArcGIS 3D Analyst, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS Network Analyst, ArcGIS Schematics, ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS Tracking Analyst
  • Data and Workflows: ArcGIS Data Interoperability, ArcGIS Data Reviewer, ArcGIS Publisher, ArcGIS Workflow Manager


ArcGIS Analyst

Figure 2.8 ArcGIS Analyst role.

Figure 2.8 shows the ArcGIS Analyst user role. The ArcGIS Analyst user role includes the following capabilities:

Software capabilities

  • ArcGIS Desktop Basic
  • Apps for Field and Office
  • Basic App Builders and Solution Templates
  • L2 Read-Write Identify (when paired with ArcGIS Online or Enterprise)

Licensing

  • Perpetual and term licensing options

Optional extensions

  • Advanced Analysis: ArcGIS 3D Analyst, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS Network Analyst, ArcGIS Schematics, ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS Tracking Analyst
  • Data and Workflows: ArcGIS Data Interoperability, ArcGIS Data Reviewer, ArcGIS Publisher, ArcGIS Workflow Manager


ArcGIS Desktop is changing

Figure 2.9 ArcGIS Pro is expanding ArcGIS Desktop capabilities.

Figure 2.9 shows the rapidly advancing ArcGIS Pro road ahead.

Near term (July 2017)

  • Multiple Instances of Pro
  • Annotation Editing, Read WFS, Layout Grids
  • Full Motion Video, Charts in Layouts
  • Interactive Input for Analysis, SDK Improvements

Midterm (Q4 2017)

  • Utility Network, Attribute Rules, Reports
  • Offline Web Maps & Layers, Stereo & Oblique
  • Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis
  • Real-Time Streaming, SAP HANA

Long-term (2018)

  • Parcel Fabric, Offset Printing, Presentations
  • Animated Symbols, Dimensions

ArcGIS Pro will soon be feature equivalent with ArcMap, with more advanced capabilities and professional GIS user productivity tools.

Best Practice: Plan now for leveraging ArcGIS Pro capabilities


3D visualization

Figure 2.10 3D visualization is available in CityEngine, ArcGIS Pro, and ArcScene.

Figure 2.10 shows advances with 3D visualization. 3D models, animations, renderings, virtual tours, and planning are some of the services available with the ArcGIS platform. ArcGIS Pro provides powerful 3D capabilities for development and design, with options for 2D and 3D geographic representations in an interactive linked multi-display view.

Create interactive scenes with the built-in Scene Viewer. A scene is symbolized geospatial content that includes a multiscale basemap and a collection of 2D and 3D layers, styles, and configurations that allow you to visualize and analyze geographic information in an intuitive and interactive 3D environment.

  1. Choose global or local
  2. Switch basemap
  3. Add layers
  4. Configure layers
  5. Capture slides
  6. Save scene
Best Practice: 3D visualization can bring your ideas to life.

New vector tiles

Figure 2.11 ArcGIS is evolving to consume vector tiles across all devices as well as create and publish vector tiles to ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Online.

Figure 2.11 shows the new vector tile format. Esri is engineering support for consuming and rendering vector tiles across the ArcGIS platform. ArcGIS Pro can create, publish, and use vector tile basemaps for optimum ArcGIS Desktop and Web GIS performance and scalability.

Vector tiles support a more dynamic high-quality display.

  • Display quality: Best possible resolution for Retina displays; small, efficient format.
  • Dynamic labeling: Clearer, more readable text; on-the-fly labeling for heads-up display.
  • Map styling: Streets, Topo, Canvas from one tile set; Day and Night mode; Restyling.

Vector tiles are created and delivered with much less processing.

  • Faster tile generation: World vector tiles generated in 8 hours versus world raster tiles generated in many weeks.
  • Reduced tile size: World vector tiles ~13 GB; world raster tiles ~20 TB.

Vector tiles are published and consumed by ArcGIS client software.

  • Tile creation: ArcGIS Pro 1.2+ (geoprocessing services).
  • Published tile layers: ArcGIS Online; ArcGIS Server/Portal for ArcGIS 10.4+.
  • Client consumption: ArcGIS Runtime Quartz; ArcGIS Pro 1.3+, ArcGIS JavaScript 3.15+ and 4.0 APIs.
Best Practice: Vector tiles provide a single layer of files that can be dynamically displayed and styled.

ArcGIS Desktop migration

Figure 2.12 Enterprise ArcGIS Desktop solutions should consider migration to ArcGIS Pro.

Figure 2.12 shows ArcGIS Desktop migration strategy. ArcGIS Desktop users are migrating from ArcMap to ArcGIS Pro.

Legacy applications

  • Most system of record environments currently use ArcMap for their production environments.
  • ArcMap remote application server load profiles are different than ArcGIS Pro.

ArcGIS Desktop future

  • ArcGIS Pro should be able to replace all ArcMap capabilities by2019.
  • ArcGIS Desktop license supports both ArcMap and ArcGIS Pro.
  • ArcGIS Pro remote application server configurations (Citrix) are different than ArcMap.
Best Practice: System architecture should consider migration to ArcGIS Pro in their final design solution.
Note: ArcMap and ArcGIS Pro configuration guidelines will be discussed in chapters 3 and 9.

ArcGIS Desktop workflows

ArcGIS Desktop business use cases are represented in the Capacity Planning Tool (CPT) as ArcGIS Desktop workflows. ArcGIS wkstn workflows represent ArcGIS Desktop software installed on the client workstation. ArcGIS Citrix workflows represent ArcGIS Desktop software installed on a central host server farm (windows terminal servers) supporting distributed thin client access and control.

ArcGIS Desktop use case

The following use cases support ArcGIS Desktop workflows.

ArcGIS Desktop wkstn workflows

Figure 2.13 AGD wkstn, AGD wkstn FSvc, and AGD_wkstn Imagery workflows are included in the CPT for capacity planning.

Figure 2.13 shows the types of ArcGIS Wkstn workflows available in the CPT.

AGD wkstn workflows (local client access)

  • ArcGIS Desktop is installed on the client workstation with direct data source access.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application connects to a file or Enterprise Geodatabase data source.

AGD wkstn FSvc workflows (remote client access)

  • Portal shares service definition (Web map) for access to Web GIS feature sources.
  • ArcGIS Desktop is installed on the client workstation with access to a GIS Server feature service.
  • ArcGIS Desktop client accesses Portal Web map sharing service definition (Web URLs) for Web GIS feature services.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application connects to remote GIS Server feature services for map display.

AGD_wkstn Imagery workflows (local client access)

  • ArcGIS Desktop installed on client workstation accessing an imagery data source.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application connects to an imagery data source.

Baseline ArcGIS Desktop workstation workflows are included in the Capacity Planning Tool.

  • Standard workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.
  • Custom workflows can be generated using the CPT Calculator tab.
  • Project workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.
Best Practice: Workflow performance targets are generated by the CPT Calculator from benchmark test results.

ArcGIS Desktop Citrix workflows

Figure 2.14 AGD Citrix, AGD Citrix FSvc, and AGD_Citrix Imagery workflows are included in the CPT for capacity planning.

Figure 2.14 shows the types of ArcGIS Citrix workflows available in the CPT. AGD Citrix workflows are used to represent remote client access to centrally hosted ArcGIS Desktop applications.

AGD Citrix workflows

  • ArcGIS Desktop application installed on host server farm with direct data source access.
  • The terminal client connects to the ArcGIS Desktop application installed on the host platform.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application on the host connects to the file or Enterprise Geodatabase data source.

AGD Citrix FSvc workflows

  • ArcGIS Desktop installed on host server with access to a GIS Server feature service.
  • The terminal client connects to the ArcGIS Desktop application installed on the host platform.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application on the host connects to the GIS Server feature service.

AGD_Citrix Imagery workflows

  • ArcGIS Desktop installed on host platform accessing an imagery data source.
  • The terminal client connects to the ArcGIS Desktop application installed on the host platform.
  • The ArcGIS Desktop application on the host connects to the imagery data source.

Baseline ArcGIS Desktop workstation workflows are included in the Capacity Planning Tool.

  • Standard workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.
  • Custom workflows can be generated using the CPT Calculator tab.
  • Project workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.
Best Practice: Workflow performance targets are generated by the CPT Calculator from benchmark test results.

ArcGIS Desktop workflows for capacity planning

ArcGIS Desktop software technology selection

  • ArcGIS Desktop workflow performance targets are generated from the CPT Calculator tab.
  • The CPT Calculator generates a workflow recipe that identifies the selected software technology and performance parameters.
CPT desktop workflows

ArcGIS Desktop workflow performance targets are generated from the CPT Calculator tab.

Software workflow recipe

The CPT Calculator generates a workflow recipe that identifies the selected Software Technology and Performance Parameters.

Note: Workflow performance targets will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 3: GIS software performance.
ArcGIS Desktop Standard Workflows

The most common ArcGIS Desktop workflow patterns are pre-generated from the Calculator tab and included on the Workflow tab as Standard Workflows.

ArcGIS Desktop performance

The ArcGIS Desktop workflow performance will vary, based on complexity and data source.

  • Workflow display complexity and user productivity are two key variables that contribute to hardware platform processing loads.
  • Network bandwidth and display traffic are two additional key variables that impact display performance.
  • The selected GIS data source format is another key variable impacting display performance.
Note: Workflow complexity will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 3: GIS software performance.
Warning: The use of 3D dynamic workflows can significantly increase display complexity and client traffic.


Web app user roles

Web app user roles include ArcGIS Contributors and ArcGIS Viewers.

ArcGIS Contributor

Figure 2.15 ArcGIS Contributor role.

Figure 2.15 shows the ArcGIS Contributor user role. The ArcGIS Contributor user role includes the following capabilities:

Includes

  • Apps for Field and Office
  • Basic App Builders and Solution Templates
  • L2 Read-Write Identify (when paired with ArcGIS Online or Enterprise)

Licensing

  • Term licensing
  • Volume discounts (>50,>100,>500,>1000)


ArcGIS Viewer

Figure 2.16 ArcGIS Viewer role.

Figure 2.16 shows the ArcGIS Viewer user role. The ArcGIS Viewer user role includes the following capabilities:

Includes

  • Read-only Apps for Field and Office
  • Read-only Apps
  • L1 Read-Write Identify (when paired with ArcGIS Online or Enterprise)

Licensing

  • ArcGIS Online: Term licensing
  • ArcGIS Online: Volume discounts (>500,>1000)
  • Effective January 1, 2018, all ArcGIS Enterprise Standard and Advanced customers are eligible to add ArcGIS for Portal Viewer (Level 1) licenses at no additional cost. This change allows customers to expand the reach of ArcGIS within their organization without compromising security.


ArcGIS Enterprise licensing

Figure 2.17 ArcGIS Enterprise provides the software components to support Web GIS operations.

Figure 2.17 shows the ArcGIS Enterprise components. ArcGIS Enterprise provides licensing for the basic ArcGIS Enterprise software components.

ArcGIS Enterprise licensing levels

  • ArcGIS Enterprise Advanced
  • ArcGIS Enterprise Standard

ArcGIS Enterprise per core licensing model

  • Licensing is based on the number of GIS Server processor cores.
  • Customer can choose to base licensing on physical or virtual server core.
  • Number of GIS Server processor core limits peak system transaction throughput.


ArcGIS Enterprise Advanced

Figure 2.18 ArcGIS Enterprise Advanced license.

Figure 2.18 The ArcGIS Enterprise Advanced license provides the most server capabilities. All extensions are included in the Advanced license.

Includes

  • 4-core License of GIS Server and Portal
  • Advanced Analysis: ArcGIS Network Analyst, ArcGIS 3D Analyst, ArcGIS Schematics, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS Spatial Analyst
  • 50 – ArcGIS Contributor Roles Users
  • 30 – ArcGIS Viewer Role Users

Licensing

  • Perpetual and term licensing options

OPTIONAL EXTENSIONS

  • ArcGIS Data Interoperability, ArcGIS Workflow Manager, ArcGIS Data Reviewer, ArcGIS for Maritime, Esri Defense Mapping, Esri Production Mapping, Esri Roads and Highways, ArcGIS for Inspire, ArcGIS Pipeline Referencing
  • Perpetual or Term (1-year) license

Scalability

  • Additional 2-core Packs
  • Perpetual option with annual maintenance


ArcGIS Enterprise Standard

Figure 2.19 ArcGIS Enterprise Standard license.

Figure 2.19 The ArcGIS Enterprise Standard license provides basic server capabilities. Extensions are available to increase capabilities as needed to satisfy business requirements.

Includes

  • 4-core License of GIS Server plus Portal
  • Advanced Analysis: ArcGIS Schematics
  • 5 – ArcGIS Contributor Role Users
  • 30 – ArcGIS Viewer Role Users

Licensing

  • Perpetual and term licensing options

Optional extensions

  • ArcGIS Data Interoperability, ArcGIS Workflow Manager, ArcGIS Network Analyst, ArcGIS Data Reviewer, ArcGIS for Maritime, Esri Production Mapping, Esri Roads and Highways, ArcGIS for Inspire, ArcGIS Pipeline Referencing
  • Perpetual or Term (1-year) license

Scalability

  • Additional 2-core Packs
  • Perpetual option with annual maintenance


ArcGIS Enterprise use cases

ArcGIS web app business use cases are represented in the CPT as ArcGIS Server (AGS) workflows. Web applications consume services published by ArcGIS Server. AGS workflows include web map services, feature service, image service, and cached tile services. Web apps can include a mix of these services (map, feature, image, and cached tile services) in a composite workflow. Traditional web mapping services were published directly from ArcGIS Server or similar web service content providers. ArcGIS Enterprise includes access to Portal content, where Web maps are created and shared to define the services that are consumed by the web app display.

ArcGIS web apps workflows

Figure 2.20 ArcGIS Server web mapping services, feature services, and imagery services workflows are included in the CPT for capacity planning.

Figure 2.20 shows the types of ArcGIS web app workflows available in the CPT. The following ArcGIS web app use cases are included in the Capacity Planning Tool. User requirements are identified as peak concurrent users or peak transaction throughput.

AGS (REST, KML, WMS, SOAP, KMX)(JPEG, PNG, ..., PDF) workflows

  • Web Map Service registered with ArcGIS Portal.
  • Web client access Web map shared by ArcGIS Portal.
  • The web client connects to GIS mapping services published from the GIS Server platform.
  • GIS Server service instances connect to the file or Enterprise Geodatabase data source.

AGS (REST,...) Feature workflows

  • Web feature services registered with ArcGIS Portal.
  • Web client access Web map shared by ArcGIS Portal.
  • The web client connects to GIS feature services published from the GIS Server platform.
  • GIS Server service instances connect to the file or Enterprise Geodatabase data source.

AGS Imagery workflows

  • Web imagery services registered with ArcGIS Portal.
  • Web client access Web map shared by ArcGIS Portal.
  • The web client connects to GIS image services published from the Image Server platform.
  • Image Server service instances connect with mosaic dataset to image file data source.

Baseline workflows are included in the Capacity Planning Tool.

  • Standard workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.
  • Custom workflows can be generated using the CPT Calculator tab.
  • Project workflows are included in the CPT Workflow tab.


ArcGIS Server workflows for capacity planning

ArcGIS Server software technology selection

  • ArcGIS Server workflow performance targets are generated from the CPT Calculator tab.
  • The CPT Calculator generates a workflow recipe that identifies the selected software technology and performance parameters.
CPT server workflows

ArcGIS Server workflow performance targets are generated from the CPT Calculator tab.

ArcGIS Server standard workflows

The most common ArcGIS Server workflow patterns are pre-generated from the Calculator tab and included on the Workflow tab as Standard Workflows.

Best Practice: Use the CPT Calculator to complete a workflow analysis for each business use case, and then use the Calculator-generated workflow performance targets for your design specifications.

Standard workflows provide a reasonable performance target for light and medium software deployment use-cases. In most cases, Standard Workflows provide performance targets with adequate margins for your design.

Best Practice: The workflow recipe should be used as design specifications by the service author and software developer to ensure compliance with performance targets during system deployment.
Note: Workflow display complexity will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 3.

ArcGIS Server performance

Client traffic bandwidth limitations contribute most to web service display performance.

  • Server processing loads are less than one second for most web mapping workflows.
  • Local high bandwidth client display performance is much faster than more bandwidth-challenged remote client display performance.
  • Bandwidth connectivity can provide a significant contribution to user productivity.
Warning: Server processing times will impact platform capacity and licensing costs, with less impact on user productivity.
Note: The default workflows shown here use a 1024x768 map display resolution—display traffic and client response time improves significantly with smaller resolution image services.


Additional capabilities for ArcGIS Enterprise

Figure 2.21 Additional capabilities for ArcGIS Enterprise.

Figure 2.21 shows the available ArcGIS Enterprise extensions. ArcGIS Enterprise can be expanded to include additional capabilities.

Following capabilities are available with the ArcGIS 10.5 release:

  • Data Appliance 5.0 for ArcGIS includes world Base Maps, Geocoding services, and world imagery datasets.
  • Image Management Services: ArcGIS Image Server provides Image Services and Raster processing capabilities.
  • Real Time Services: ArcGIS GeoEvent Server provides real time capabilities.
  • Big Data Analytics Services: ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server provides analysis of a variety of big data sources.


GIS Server roles

Figure 2.22 GIS Server roles provide distributed processing for a variety of geoprocessing tasks within the ArcGIS Enterprise architecture.

Figure 2.22 shows the available GIS Server roles. GIS Server roles provide workflow separation for Imagery raster analytics, ArcGIS GeoEvent real time processing, GeoAnalytics big data analysis, and Business Analysis demographic resources.

GIS Server roles

  • ArcGIS Image Server: Provides dedicated GIS Server site for image services and raster analytics within the ArcGIS Enterprise architecture.
  • ArcGIS GeoEvent Server: Provides dedicated GIS Server site for real-time processing within the ArcGIS Enterprise architecture.
  • ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server: Provides dedicated GIS Server site distributed processing for big data analysis within the ArcGIS Enterprise architecture.
  • ArcGIS Business Analyst Server: Provides dedicated GIS Server site for business analysis within the ArcGIS Enterprise architecture.
Best Practice: Workload separate of geoprocessing tasks improve overall system performance and scalability.


ArcGIS Image Server and raster analytics

Figure 2.23 ArcGIS Image Server deployment architecture.

Figure 2.23 shows the ArcGIS Image Server product architecture. ArcGIS Image Server provides a dedicated site for publishing imagery services and supporting raster analytics processing.

The ArcGIS Image Server role is deployed as a separate GIS Server site. To use ArcGIS Image Server, you must have the basic ArcGIS Enterprise deployment. The basic ArcGIS Enterprise environment supports Portal for ArcGIS, a Federated hosting GIS Server, and the relational and tile cache ArcGIS Data Stores. An additional Raster data store is deployed with the ArcGIS Image Server site.

ArcGIS Image Server hosts published dynamic image services and capabilities for executing a wide range of raster processing models. The results of image processing or raster analysis are persisted as image and feature layers registered in the portal.

ArcGIS GeoEvent Server

Figure 2.24 ArcGIS GeoEvent Server deployment architecture.

Figure 2.24 shows the ArcGIS GeoEvent Server deployment architecture. ArcGIS GeoEvent Server enables real-time event-based data streams to be integrated as data sources in your enterprise GIS.

Event data can be filtered, processed, and sent to multiple destinations, allowing you to connect with virtually any type of streaming data and automatically alert personnel when specified conditions occur, all in real time.

With ArcGIS GeoEvent Server, you can perform the following tasks:

  • Stream (push) event data to your client applications via WebSockets.
  • Direct event data into feature services hosted on ArcGIS Online, Portal for ArcGIS, or ArcGIS Server so that maps that you create will represent the most up-to-date information occurring in the real world.
  • View the latest feature status using any ArcGIS viewer (for example, Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS).
  • Filter GeoEvents using spatial or attribute conditions to focus on the most interesting event data.
  • Geofence areas of interest using existing feature data to detect the spatial proximity of events. You can even create geofences on-the-fly without disconnecting from your real-time data stream.
  • Archive event data in feature services, tables, and the spatiotemporal big data store.
  • Enrich incoming events with data from a secondary feature service or system file.

To use ArcGIS GeoEvent Server, you must have the basic ArcGIS Enterprise deployment. The base ArcGIS Enterprise environment includes Portal for ArcGIS, a Federated hosting GIS Server, and the Spatiotemporal ArcGIS Data Store. ArcGIS GeoEvent Server machines are deployed as separate GIS Server sites.

ArcGIS GeoAnalytic Server

Figure 2.25 ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server deployment architecture.

Figure 2.25 shows the ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server deployment architecture.

ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server introduces distributed computing to vector-based feature data and can be used to analyze big data or accelerate traditional ArcGIS Desktop analysis workflows through ArcGIS Pro and Portal for ArcGIS.

The ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server site enables distributed analysis across a scalable architecture. To use ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server, you must have the basic ArcGIS Enterprise deployment. The base ArcGIS Enterprise environment includes Portal for ArcGIS, a Federated hosting GIS Server, and the relational and Spatiotemporal ArcGIS Data Store. ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server machines are deployed in a separate dedicated GIS Server site.

Beginning at ArcGIS 10.5, you can perform feature analysis using distributed computing with the tools and platforms provided by the ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server site. ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server can perform data analysis from feature services, Big Data File Shares, or the Relational and Spatiotemporal ArcGIS Data Stores. ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server output is provided as Web GIS layers in Portal.

ArcGIS Business Analyst Server

Figure 2.26 ArcGIS Business Analyst Server deployment architecture.

Figure 2.26 shows the ArcGIS Business Analyst Server deployment architecture.

ArcGIS Business Analyst Server is part of an enterprise solution that enables organizations to incorporate location into their decision-making process.

ArcGIS Business Analyst Server comes with a number of Business Analyst-based geoprocessing tools that can be used in Python-based scripts or models, and published as reusable custom workflows. Additionally, the solution enables organizations to host the Esri GeoEnrichment service on-premises and behind their firewalls.

ArcGIS Business Analyst Server will work alongside single-machine and multi-tiered deployments of ArcGIS Enterprise. The Business Analyst web app requires a portal with a hosting server; however, stand-alone ArcGIS Server implementations of ArcGIS Business Analyst Server are also supported for legacy custom applications.

ArcGIS geoprocessing workflows

ArcGIS geoprocessing workflows can be very compute intensive, and can often generate background platform processing loads over a long period of time.

  • Some geoprocessing tasks generate processing loads across multiple platform tier along with associated network traffic transactions. (i.e. geodatabase replication, mobile synchronization, data migration, etc).
  • Many geographic geoprocessing tasks are executed on a single platform tier (i.e. geographic spatial analysis, geographic temporal analytics, geographic network tracing analysis, and imagery raster analytics).
  • Geoprocessing productivity is limited by available software service instances and hardware processing resources.
Warning: Geoprocessing jobs consume assigned platform resources

Distributed geoprocessing services

Figure 2.27 Any workflow profile can be deployed as a batch process.

Figure 2.27 shows a standard ArcGIS Server use case configured as a geoprocessing service. Capacity Planning Tool geoprocessing service loads are enabled by setting workflow min think time = 0.

Standard mapping or feature services can be used to represent a geoprocessing service profile.

  • Use any Standard or Custom workflows and set min think time = 0.
  • Identify number of batch instances as workflow clients.
  • CPT calculates loads for single threaded batch process across installed platform profile.
CPT Calculator batch workflows


Heavy geoanalytics processing loads

Figure 2.28 Dedicated host standard GeoBatch Services.

Figure 2.28 shows CPT standard workflows that apply batch processing loads to a single software component.

For many geoprocessing analysis tasks, the processing is performed on a single server platform in memory or with a data source on local storage.

  • During process execution, the geoprocessing service instance consumes a processor core.
  • For capacity planning purposes, the system design architect must reserve a platform processor core for each concurrent processing job. The processing job output loads are negligible compared to the batch processing load, and can be ignored.
  • Geoprocessing loads can be represented by using a CPT batch workflow (min think time = 0) with service times assigned to single software component (i.e. Citrix, Web, SOC, or DBMS).
CPT batch Standard Workflows


Geoprocessing workflow productivity

Figure 2.29 Geoprocessing productivity.

Figure 2.29 shows a representation of geoprocessing batch process productivity.

Geoprocessing tasks are executed as rapidly as possible given the available processing resources.

  • Process runs as long as it takes to complete the processing job.
  • Single-threaded analysis tasks are executed on a single process thread which can consume a single processor core.
  • Multi-threaded analysis tasks can be distributed across available software service instances, where each service instance can consume a single processor core.
Geoprocessing workflow performance

Capacity planning is based on peak number of concurrent batch processes required for each geoprocessing workflow (business requirements). Analysis run time depends on the complexity of the geoprocessing task and the performance of the selected platform architecture.

Premium apps for ArcGIS

Figure 2.30 Premium apps for ArcGIS.

Figure 2.30 shows the available premium apps for ArcGIS. Premium apps are licensed separately from ArcGIS Enterprise. You purchase and import entitlements for these apps into your portal, and provision individual licenses to portal members.

ArcGIS Enterprise premium apps

  • Navigator for ArcGIS: A mobile app that allows you to route field-workers to job sites. Field staff can continue to work even when disconnected from your network.
  • Insights for ArcGIS: An app that you access through Portal for ArcGIS that allows you to perform iterative and exploratory data analysis on ArcGIS web services, Excel spreadsheets, and data stored in databases.
  • Drone2Map for ArcGIS: Allows you to visualize and analyze geolocated images that you collect with a drone to help you inspect areas from the air and monitor changes. 2D and 3D maps that you create with Drone2Map for ArcGIS can be shared to Portal for ArcGIS.
  • ArcGIS Business Analyst web app: Enables commercial Realtors, retailers, economic development agencies, and others to evaluate markets for expansion, consolidation, or investment.
  • Community Analyst: Includes global data and reports for more than 135 countries. These datasets range from population and households to healthcare spending and crime rates. Access recent demographics about total population, family size, household income, unemployment, and more.
  • GeoPlanner for ArcGIS: Allows you to collaborate with other members of your portal organization on land-based planning and designs.

A variety of Premium apps for ArcGIS are available on the ArcGIS web site.

Insights for ArcGIS

Figure 2.31 Insights for ArcGIS.

Figure 2.31 shows the Insights for ArcGIS information display interface. The Insights for ArcGIS app is accessed through Portal for ArcGIS and allows you to perform iterative and exploratory data analysis on ArcGIS web services, Excel spreadsheets, and data stored in databases.

With Insights for ArcGIS, you can quickly discover the secrets that your data holds. Visualize, analyze, and tell your story like never before.

Maps, charts, and tables appear alongside each other as cards. Each card is a live snapshot of the analysis. Apply a different style to each card, and keep iterating.

ArcGIS Online

Figure 2.32 ArcGIS Online licensing.

Figure 2.32 shows the available ArcGIS Online service options. ArcGIS Online services offer a cost-effective way to access up-to-date GIS content and capabilities on demand.

ArcGIS Online Services provide instant and reliable access to terabytes of data including street maps, live weather and traffic information, extensive demographic data, topographic maps, and high-resolution imagery from an extensive list of world-class data providers.

ArcGIS Online provides Web GIS software as a service (SaaS).

Includes

  • Apps for Field and Office
  • Basic App Builders and Solution Templates
  • 5 – ArcGIS Contributor Role Users

Licensing

  • Term licensing
  • Additional Contributor Role Users in blocks of five (5)
  • Viewer Role Users in blocks of ten (10)
  • Volume discounts available


ArcGIS Online for Organizations

Figure 2.33 ArcGIS Online subscription services. ArcGIS Online provides a variety of data content and analysis services along with an organization portal for managing creation, sharing, and collaboration of online services.

Figure 2.33 shows the ArcGIS Online for Organizations user interface. ArcGIS Online for Organizations include a GIS Portal that connects end-users with useful online GIS applications, maps and geographic data, extending the reach of your geographic information products and ArcGIS beyond GIS experts. Portal is a central component of the ArcGIS platform, providing the means to easily create, organize, secure, and manage geographic assets within your organization.

With ArcGIS Online subscription services, data storage, maintenance, and updates are handled by Esri, providing software as a service for data management, sharing, collaborating, and publishing online. Users can access data and GIS capabilities directly using ArcGIS Desktop or use ArcGIS Online subscription services to build unique Web-based applications.

Training presentation on Best Practices for Your ArcGIS Online Organization

ArcGIS Online downloadable apps

A number of ready-to-use apps are available for download fully integrated with ArcGIS Online Organizations. A sample of the more popular apps include:

  • Collector for ArcGIS
  • Location Analytics clients
>Esri Maps for Office
>Esri Maps for Dynamics CRM
>Esri Maps for IBM Cognos
>Esri Maps for MicroStrategy
>Esri Maps for SAP Business Objects
  • Web Application templates
  • Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS
  • ArcGIS app for Smartphones and Tablets
  • Explorer for ArcGIS
  • AppStudio for ArcGIS applications

Training presentation on Boost Productivity with Explorer for ArcGIS.

Additional ArcGIS Online SDSwiki content

GIS Software Selection

Figure 2.34 GIS enterprise solutions often include a mix of software technology and data sources carefully selected to satisfy specific operational business needs.

Selecting the right software and the most effective deployment architecture is very important. ArcGIS technology provides many alternative architecture solutions and a wide variety of software, all designed to support specific user workflow needs as shown in Figure 2.34.

GIS software technology alternatives.

  • What are the best data sources?
  • What user workflows should be supported by GIS desktop applications?
  • What can be supported by cost-effective web services?
  • What business functions should be supported by network services?
  • Where will mobile applications improve business operations?

Reviewing the available technology alternatives and how each performs and scales within your user environment can provide critical information needed to make the right technology decisions.

System resource selections

Selecting the right technology has a direct impact on implementation success and overall return on investment.

GIS data sources

Operations can be supported on local disk or CD-ROM, shared file servers, geodatabase servers, imagery, preprocessed map cache, or web data sources.

  • Cached map services provide the highest performance and scalability.
  • Local data sources support high-performance productivity requirements with minimum network latency.
  • Remote web services allow connection to a variety of published data sources, with the drawback of potential bandwidth congestion and slow performance.

There are other, more loosely connected, architecture solutions that reduce potential network performance latency and support distributed data integration.

Note: Data selection options will be addressed in more detail in Lesson 5: GIS data administration.

Desktop applications

The highest level of functionality and productivity is provided by local ArcGIS Desktop applications.

  • Most professional GIS users and GIS power users will be more productive with the ArcGIS Desktop software.
  • Desktop applications can be supported on the user workstation or through terminal access to software executed on central Windows Terminal Server farms.
  • Some of the more powerful ArcGIS Desktop software extensions (3D virtualization and heavy Imagery processing) perform best on user workstations with a local data source, while most desktop mapping workflows can be supported more efficiently on a terminal server farm.
Best Practice: Selecting the appropriate application deployment strategy can have a significant impact on user performance, administrative support, and infrastructure deployment savings.

Web and network services

ArcGIS Server technologies provide efficient support for a wide variety of more focused GIS user workflows.

  • Provide an efficient way to share data to support remote client workflows.
  • Provide the most efficient way to publish standard map information products.
  • Server functionality is available to support more advanced user workflows and services.
  • Cost-effective way to leverage GIS resources to support users throughout the organization and associated user communities.

Intranet applications can access deployed geoprocessing services managing heavy processing tasks in a controlled server environment. Network services can be used to support a variety of web and network applications.

Mobile applications

A growing number of GIS operations are supported by more loosely connected mobile GIS solutions.

  • ArcGIS technology supports continuous workflow operations that include disconnected editing and remote wireless operations.
  • A disconnected architecture solution can significantly reduce infrastructure costs and improve user productivity for some operational workflows.
Best Practice: Leveraging mobile services can provide alternative solutions to support a variety of user workflow environments.

Most enterprise GIS solutions include a mix of ArcGIS technology tailored to meet specific business needs. ArcGIS technology works together as an integrated system environment, with each component optimized for optimum user productivity.

ArcGIS Enterprise deployment

Figure 2.35 ArcGIS Enterprise on-premise deployment.

Figure 2.35 shows the ArcGIS Enterprise platform architecture. The ArcGIS platform provides a broad range of capabilities to support your business requirements.

The ArcGIS Enterprise platform includes a variety of components that must be configured and deployed properly to support your environment.

Selecting the right platform architecture for meeting your business needs establishes a framework for successful operations.

The Capacity Planning Calculator provides a framework for modeling software performance and scalability on available hardware and network communication technology. The Calculator models what we understand about GIS technology patterns and key workflow performance parameters, relationships we can validate with well-defined test benchmarks and operational experience. For single workflows, the Calculator provides a complete software and hardware solution. For Enterprise Design solutions, the Calculator provides workflow performance targets that can be used in the Enterprise Design.

Software technology cycle

Figure 2.36 Software technology cycle show the evolution of a specific software product contributes to effective GIS operations.

Figure 2.36 shows a typical software product life cycle. Selecting the right technology at the right time is one of the bigger challenges for building and maintaining effective enterprise GIS operations.

Warning: Making the right technology choice can make or break your success.

Technology is changing fast, and new innovations bring a great deal of promise.

Warning: The temptation to select technology based on promise can contribute to a painful implementation and failed expectations.
Best Practice: Selecting the right technology at the right time can lead to optimum success.
Warning: Replacing aging technology is also important, missing the performance and productivity gains delivered with new technology innovation.

Software and hardware product life cycles are getting shorter as technology improves more rapidly each year.

Do your homework.

  • Understand your business needs.
  • Review available technology opportunities.
  • Complete a design analysis before your buy.

The Capacity Planning Calculator provides a framework for modeling software performance and scalability on available hardware and network communication technology. The Calculator models what we understand about GIS technology patterns and key workflow performance parameters, relationships we can validate with well-defined test benchmarks and operational experience. For single workflows, the Calculator provides a complete software and hardware solution. For Enterprise Design solutions, the Calculator provides workflow performance targets that can be used in the Enterprise Design.

Selecting the proper software and architecture deployment strategy can have a significant impact on user workflow performance, system administration, user support, and infrastructure requirements. The following Chapter 2: Software technology selection video provides an overview of GIS Software technology patterns available for use in your Capacity Planning Tool analysis.

CPT Capacity Planning videos

The next chapter will discuss Software Performance, providing a much closer look at the software performance parameters and baseline performance models in the Capacity Planning Calculator.

Previous Wiki Editions

GIS Software Technology 42nd Edition
GIS Software Technology 41st Edition
GIS Software Technology 40th Edition
GIS Software Technology 39th Edition
GIS Software Technology 38th Edition
GIS Software Technology 37th Edition
GIS Software Technology 36th Edition
GIS Software Technology 35th Edition
GIS Software Technology 34th Edition
GIS Software Technology 33rd Edition
GIS Software Technology 32nd Edition
GIS Software Technology 31st Edition
GIS Software Technology 30th Edition
GIS Software Technology 29th Edition
GIS Software Technology 28th Edition
GIS Software Technology 27th Edition

System Design Strategies (select here for table of contents)
1. System Design Process 2. GIS Software Technology 3. Software Performance 4. Server Software Performance
5. GIS Data Administration 6. Network Communications 7. Platform Performance 8. Information Security
9. GIS Product Architecture 10. Performance Management 11. City of Rome 12. System Implementation
A1. Capacity Planning Tool B1. Windows Memory Management Preface (Executive Summary) SDSwiki What's New

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System Design Strategies 26th edition - An Esri ® Technical Reference Document • 2009 (final PDF release)